Introduction to the oxygen molecule:
Oxygen is an element belonging to the chalcogenide group on the periodic table represented by the symbol O with an atomic number of 8. Oxygen is a highly reactive, non-metallic element belonging to period 2 in the periodic table. It can easily form compounds with about all the other elements. Two oxygen atoms bind together with the standard operating conditions of temperature and pressure to form a diatomic oxygen molecule, which is odorless, colorless and tasteless represented by the O2 formula. The oxygen molecule is known to be the third most abundant available in the universe.
Structural description of the oxygen molecule:
The oxygen molecule is diatomic with an electronic configuration of 1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py1, 2pz1 with 16 electrons. The two oxygen atoms are connected by a double bond with the electrons in the second to last orbit. Due to the presence of unpaired electrons in the outer shell, the oxygen molecule makes the paramagnetic character.
Molecule of oxygen, its functions and uses: the molecule of O2 is abundantly available in gaseous form. Mostly the air we breathe is oxygen. Nitrogen consists of about 4/5 ° of air in the earth’s atmosphere, the rest of the earth’s atmosphere is oxygen. Oxygen is required by almost all living things, which synthesize energy from food through a process called breathing. The oxygen we breathe is transported to the body and is used to generate energy to perform various metabolic functions of the body. Few plants and microorganisms synthesize their own oxygen molecules necessary for their metabolism. Microorganisms that synthesize oxygen molecules for their metabolism use sunlight as the main source for food preparation in the photosynthesis process. The oxygen produced during photosynthesis is then used by the various metabolic functions of the body. At increased partial pressures, inhalation of oxygen gas is toxic, causing damage to the central nervous system and the lungs.
Bohr diagram for oxygen
The oxygen belongs to Group IV contains five elements associated with the Oxygen element. Because oxygen is the first element of the group, it is also called the Oxygen family. The first four elements of the group are non-metals. These are collectively known as calcogens (which means mineral formation) because many metal ores occur as oxides, sulfides, etc.
Electronic oxygen configuration, O: 8
The external electronic configuration: ns2 p4.
Important properties of the Bohr diagram for oxygen
The important properties of the Bohr diagram for oxygen are as follows
Atomic number: 8
Atomic mass: 15.999
Solid State Density: 1.14
Atomic radius: 0.73
Atomic volume: 14.0
Oxidation states: -2, -1
Melting point: -218.8
Boiling point: -183.0
Melting heat (KJ-1): 0.22
Molecular structure by Bohr diagram for oxygen
The molecular structure of the Bohr diagram for oxygen as follows:
Oxygen exists in the form of a stable diatomic molecule, O2. This explains why it is a gas. The later elements, however, have more complex molecules and exist in the solid state. For example, sulfur and selenium are presented as S8 and Se82 molecules at room temperature and have a wrinkled ring structure. The question may arise as to why oxygen only forms molecules of O and is, therefore, a gas while sulfur is a solid.
The answer lies in the tendency of the oxygen atom to form multiple bonds with it, a tendency that is lacking in the case of sulfur atom. The binding energy of the oxygen-oxygen double bond (O = O) is much larger than about three times that of the single oxygen-oxygen (O-O) bond. On the other hand, sulfur is not very strong like that of oxygen to create a bond. As a consequence, the -O-O-O- cathodic chains are less stable than the O = O molecules. Therefore, at ambient temperature, oxygen exists as a diatomic gas.
Except for Oxygen, all the elements of this group have the value of Orbitals in their valence shells. In the ground state, they have only two unpaired electrons that allow the formation of two bonds. However, in the excited state, one of the electrons p moves into the free orbital of the same shell, thus making 4 unpaired electrons available for the chemical bond.
With further excitation, the electrons are also unpaired thus making 6 unpaired electrons available for bond formation. This explains the states of +6 oxidation.
In the case of oxygen, 2p electrons on excitation must go to 3s orbitals, there are no orbitals in shell L. But because too much energy is needed to excite an electron in a higher shell (ie in shell M), electrons in oxygen are not mismatched. Therefore, oxygen behaves like a divalent element and only as a bivalent. This was the theory postulated by bohr and represented a diagram and was referred to as Bohr’s diagram for oxygen.
The atomic structure of the Bohr diagram for oxygen as shown in Figure 1.
Number of energy levels: 2, first energy level: 2, second energy level: 6
Isotope Half Life
O-15 122.2 seconds
Date of discovery: 1774
Discoverer: Joseph Priestly
Name Origin: From the Greek words oxus (acid) and gennan (to generate)
Uses: supports life
Obtained from: from liquid air
Conclusion on the oxygen molecule
The oxygen molecule is diatomic with two oxygen atoms, which is highly soluble in water. Oxygen is present in a wide variety of compounds and is the most essential for the breathing process leading to the synthesis of the energy needed for metabolic activities. Oxygen supplementation is widely used in medicine for patients with mechanical ventilation.